Polish agriculture is characterised by a very unfavourable agrarian structure which, simultaneously, differs greatly depending on the region. The most unfavourable situation in this respect is observable in the south-eastern region of Poland, the Swietokrzyskie sub-region included. An improvement in the historically shaped, unfavourable agrarian structure of the sub-region is extremely hard to attain. Changes in the agrarian structure are ever more strongly linked to the development of rural areas which takes into account the harmonisation of the farms' production-economic tasks with objectives relating to the protection and improvement of the natural environment and broadly understood cultural heritage. The Swietokrzyskie sub-region has particularly good conditions for the development of multi-functional agriculture. A very important factor, determining further changes in the agrarian structure of the discussed sub-region, will be the utilisation of exceptionally favourable natural conditions for both the purpose of agricultural production and development of non-agricultural services. However, the principal determinant of changes will be social and economic conditions. Due to the agrarian overpopulation and limited resources of arable land the most important role will be played by the development of non-agricultural activities in rural areas, development of urban-industrial areas and possibilities of permanent and shuttle migration from villages to towns.