Social and sociological orientation in the contemporary Western literary criticism is one of the most interesting but also the most fashioned trends. In his works about literature, Bourdieu represents a trial for reconciliation of structuralistic methodology and Marxist views in the social sciences and humanities becoming one of the motivational sociological and cultural issues. The article maps some of Bourdieu's opinions and shows a view of possible application of his results in the study of history of literature. Bourdieu's analysis in the French modernism from the second half of 19th century (Les regles de l'art) opens literary topics for sociological orientation of both theory and empirical research under one condition - to not apply his systematism and terminology in a mechanical way. In connection with the general tendencies to contextual study of literature seems to change the existing traditional approaches in a literary history by the contribution of the cultural representations of the time in study.