The article analyses the role of the natural sciences and humanities in building a knowledge-based society. Existing theories on a knowledge-based society overemphasise the role of the natural sciences and underestimate the role of the humanities. Indeed, the natural sciences offer practical benefits to people and seemingly better serve the desire of society to rule over nature, but they cannot explain why and how discoveries should be used. A modern knowledge-based society is unconceivable without a humanistic dimension rooted in culture because it is the humanities, not merely technological constructivism, which shapes today's economy. Furthermore, modern knowledge is characterised by differentiation and fragmentation, which lead to the loss of holism and interconnection (meta-knowledge) based on fundamental values. The author believes that without the humanities it is impossible to acquire knowledge of totality because a 'digest' of knowledge and creativity of knowledge are stimulated by orientation towards higher values and common goals of social development which cannot be defined merely as economic growth. In analysing knowledge and a knowledge-based society, the author juxtaposes the amount of knowledge and the moral value of knowledge. Equally significant is the issue of global and local development and the application of knowledge - can there be different national strategies for building knowledge, or is the increase of knowledge a global process because of the universal nature of knowledge itself? The article also touches on problems related to intellectual property by taking into account the supranational character of knowledge and the de facto existence of the e-world.