Social housing is perceived to be one of the basic instruments of housing policy. Despite the difficulty in demarcating this concept, owing to the different forms of social housing in individual countries, one of the main features of social housing is taken to be its targeting of socially more needy strata among the population. The first part of the article seeks an answer to the question of to what degree this claim corresponds to how social housing has really evolved in advanced European countries. The second part of the article focuses on efforts to date at creating a sector of social housing in the Czech Republic, while analysing the possibility of targeting such housing for certain socially defined households. From the article it becomes clear that targeting social housing for certain social strata, especially socially more needy households, is not a clear-cut process and is subject to change over the course of developments. The substance of these changes is the continuous search for balance between the social aspects of housing and economic possibilities. The main factor influencing the possibilities for the progress of social housing in the Czech Republic is the country's economic framework.