Vienna is said to be one of the birthplaces of ethnomusicology, the other being Berlin. 1885 is the date when Guido Adler, the musicologist, for the first time used the term 'comparative musicology', at least in the German speaking area in an article called 'Umfang, Methode und Ziel der Musikwissenschaft'. The paragraph on comparative musicology is actually a very short one, but the whole article is important and influential because he systematizes the whole discipline. Although some of the concepts of that time are completely outmoded, there seems to be evidence that the present day ethnomusicological methods still draw from the legacy of the past. The history of the discipline in Vienna is introduced. From the experiences of the authoress first as a student and then as scholar in Vienna it is analyzed, what Viennese ethnomusicology means nowadays. As the focus on Music and Minorities (at the Institute of Folk Music Research and Ethnomusiology), resulting in the founding of the ICTM Study Group, is seen as a special Viennese and European initiative, it is used as an example to show, if and in how far the legacy of the past is still influential.