BETWEEN REVOLUTION AND WAR IN THE REGION OF LOMZA. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND POLITICAL ACTIVITY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
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Socio-cultural and political life in the region of Lomza of the Kingdom of Poland was dominated by the local intelligentsia, to a considerable extent composed of landowners. The 1905 Revolution produced enormous changes. Primacy in public life was retained by nationalist circles. Numerous societies and organisations were established after 1907, and the Polish School Union could boast of considerable accomplishments. Culture and education involved also the Society of Polish Culture preceded, primarily in the countryside, by Peasant Education Circles and the National Education Society. Large-scale educational work was performed by the weekly 'Zaranie' and the Staszic Agricultural Circles. A significant part in socioeconomic life was played by the local centres and circles of the Agricultural Society. The local societies co-operated with Landowning Ladies Circles.Considerable significance as regards the socio-educational endeavours should be ascribed to the Catholic Union and local parishes. Pro-independence ideology was developed by the Fire Brigades; the 'Sokol' Gymnastic Society acted as a paramilitary organisation. Despite the failure of the Revolution, the prevailing mood did not abate.The pride of place assigned to national slogans testifies the distinctness of the 'gubernia' (province) of Lomza compared to the remaining regions of the Kingdom and Empire.
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