Religious, cultural and political relations between Moldova and Ukraine go back to the medieval age. National culture of Moldovan and Ukrainian peoples was formed in XIV-XVII centuries and had many common features, especially in book-writing. A factor uniting Moldovans and Ukrainians was their common orthodox religion. Close cultural contacts existed between Moldova and towns located in Ukrainian regions of Galichina, Volhynia and Podoliye, but especially important role was played by Kiev, from where teachers and architects came to Moldova and contributed to the development of the Moldovan culture. Great contribution to the Moldovan-Ukrainian relations was made in XVIII - early XIX centuries by graduates of the Kiev - Mohyla Academy, which went to work in Moldova. Relations in the field of theater and literature were set up in the late half of XIX century. Cultural relations got a new impulse with the establishment of the Moldovan Socialist Republic in 1924. Scientific relations were raised onto the new level after the research base for the Academy of Sciences of Moldova was created in 1946, and the Moldova division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1949. These relations promoted the development of natural fields in the Moldovan science, such as physics, chemistry or biology. Since the Moldovan Academy of Sciences was created in 1961, it has closely collaborated with the Ukrainian Academy. Scientific relations got a new impulse in the post-Soviet period, and were confirmed by the Agreement of Cooperation between the two Academies. Traditionally close and effective contacts have existed at the level of Academy institutes of Moldova and Ukraine, both in natural sciences and humanities. In addition, both academies collaborate closely in the framework of the International Association of Academies of Sciences.