Objectives. The aim of this article is to describe objective obstetric and population factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth, the ways in which they interact with subjective factors, in order to identify those women who are at an increased risk of developing PTSD symptoms after delivery. Methods. The Web of Science database was used to search the literature. The keywords “posttraumatic stress disorder”, “PTSD”, “childbirth”, “trauma” and “risk factors” were entered. Out of 79 resulting articles in English, 48 articles dealing with the topic of postpartum PTSD were selected, of which 29 directly dealt with the identification and description of risk factors for the development of postpartum PTSD. Additional relevant literature has been obtained through the study of these articles. Results. The incidence of PTSD at 4-6 weeks after childbirth is estimated at 5.77% in the total population of postpartum women, and in the at-risk subpopulation, the estimate is 12.64%. Obstetric factors appear to be largely mediated by the emotional support of birthing woman from medical staff as well as by the presence and support of the accompanying person. Subjective perception of childbirth by the women giving birth, and the degree of control they feel during the birth process are among strongest factors which influence the risk of developing PTSD after childbirth. Early intervention in the form of providing comprehensive information and emotional support during childbirth, as well as in the postpartum period, and various forms of social support reduce the risk of developing a chronic form of PTSD. Study limitations. Due to the specifics of childbirth systems across geographies, the incidence rate of PTSD and the representation of risk factors in the Czech and Slovak environments can differ from the incidence and representation of those countries included in the resources for this review article.