For every museum, an indicator of its orientation is the character of its collection, research and exhibition activity. Collection activity was limited by the quantity of financial means in the 1950s and hence it does not provide a complete view of the museum's orientation. In this regard more can be learned from the museum's research and exhibition activity during the given period. The author deals in his paper with the changes which took place in the Slovak National Museum in Martin from its nationalisation in 1948 to its merger with the Slovak Museum in Bratislava in 1961. Research shows that the Museum responded to change political circumstances in its plans. These were influenced both by an organ of state - the Commissariat for Education and Culture - and by a professional organisation - the Union of Slovak Museums, which recommended dealing with the issue of new installation in Slovak museums.