The formation of the Korean press was closely related to the process of the rebirth of the Korean language, which widened its range of use, created and differentiated new functional styles, and as a language of communication took over most areas of society, all in a short span of three decades. This emancipation of the language of the Korean press was inextricably intertwined with the Korean modernization movement following the forced opening of the country in 1876. During the modernizing of Korea in the final decades of the 19th century, both the pro-Western court circles and the reform-minded intellectual elite of Korea realized the necessity of creating a modern press. From this time on, a modern Korean press was also to provide an exchange of information between a Korea opening itself to the world. In the years 1881 and 1910 there were about 140 various newspapers published in Korea. From the time of the Japanese-initiated war in 1941 until their surrender in 1945, even the provincial Korean newspapers did not have a chance to publish any article without censorial oversight by the occupying forces. Only Korea's recovery of independence enabled the rebirth of an independent press at least in the southern part of the peninsula, and three years later in the newly proclaimed Republic of Korea.