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2022 | 58 | 1 | 53-70

Article title

Transnacionalismus a stálost návratu v arménské návratové migraci



Title variants

Transnationalism and the permanence of return in Armenian return migration

Languages of publication



Transnationalism and diaspora are concepts that are often intertwined but nonetheless differ. This article examines the link between transnationalism and integration processes among return migrants from the Armenian diaspora and examines the role social networks play in integration in Armenia. Returnees to Armenia can be divided into those who have returned from the Armenian diaspora (second and subsequent generations of migrants) and those who emigrated from Armenia and decided to return. This is reflected in the literature as a distinction between the 'old' and the 'new' Armenian diaspora, the latter having emerged in the 1990s. Before returning, both groups maintained ties with people in Armenia and may differ only by the extent and frequency of use of these ties. These ties can then accompany them when they return to Armenia and help them to (re-)integrate. The integration of returnees has its own specifics, compared to the integration of migrants, and may not be as simple as it might seem. This article focuses on the transnational ties of 23 migrants of Armenian descent who returned to Armenia after a long time abroad and draws on original research on return migration in Armenia conducted in 2016 and 2018. Semi-structured interviews with returnees revealed that their participation in the labour market is instrumental to their integration into mainstream society, and their work may involve transnational activities. The article shows the different opportunities that weak and strong ties provide returnees and that may facilitate their integration. Weak ties on a local level are crucial for returnees to be able to reintegrate and fully participate in life in Armenia. The article aims to understand the return strategy as one of the migration options that may or may not be permanent. A return may be followed by re-migration, under certain conditions and if obstacles to sustainable reintegration, and the article also explores the motivations for re-migration.








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Document type



  • Sociologický časopis, redakce, Sociologický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i., Jilská 1, 110 00 Praha 1, Czech Republic


Document Type

Publication order reference


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