This study focuses on the late medieval infernal novel The Life of Adam, or Solfernus from Olden Times by Václav Hájek of Libočany (1553). The text is briefly placed in the context of medieval hell novels, combining a biblical pseudepigaf and a legal handbook. A comparison of late medieval manuscripts and Hájek’s elaboration showed that from the 18th chapter onwards, Hájek significantly modified the original text, enriched it with new characters and dialogues, and emphasized the fictional character. The conclusion of the text is completely new. The excellent unique woodcut decoration of the text, the participation of Sixt of Ottersdorf in the text editing, the wording of the foreword and a number of allusions in the text lead to a final reflection on the nonliterary function of the text as part of resistance against Ferdinand I’s government.