POLISH PHOTOGRAPHY CRITICISM VS. THE PROBLEM OF AVANT-GARDE, MODERNITY AND METAPHOR IN THE LATTER PART OF THE 1950s
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After the end of the social realism in Polish photography in the mid-1950s, the critics turned to the problems of modernity, metaphor and reportage. The critics, mainly Janusz Bogucki and Urszula Czartoryska, reflected on the artistry of photography and its value principally on the basis of the categories of realism and report documentality. Czartoryska, on the other hand, tried to relate them to the concept of modernity present both in the fine arts and culture of those times. From today's perspective the most important are the opinions of Bogucki and Czartoryska who, as opposed to others, tried to analyse and highly estimated artistic works that went beyond the purity of form of photography as art, i.e. beyond the literary and humanistic reportage (for instance, the works by Zdzislaw Beksinski, Marek Piasecki, Bronislaw Schlabs). The key concept of modernity had a very broad research model. The term was variously interpreted, even with inclusion of reportage, or experimental film by Andrzej Pawlowski. The criticism was backed up by the theoretical texts of Zbigniew Dlubak focused on painting metaphor, an artist of avant-garde opinions and aspirations, in his texts postulated the 'purity' of form of art of photography distanced himself both from the tradition of pictorialism, expressionism and figurative surrealism. In general, all Polish critics allowed abstraction in photography only when a photograph preserved its mimetic character, without the elements of graphic art or painting. Such critics as Bogucki and Czartoryska, and to a lesser extent Ligocki, accompanied with their texts the more modern artists of the 1950s in Poland.
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