In Heidegger's philosophical writings on science the problematic of science occupies an important place. There are several periods in Heidegger's articulating this problem. Among the most important are the 1930s, especially his lecture 'Modern Mathematical Natural Science', which is seen by the author of the article as one of the most fundamental Heidegger's works. Divided into two main parts it examines the relationship between the mathematical and metaphysics as well as Descartes' relationship to metaphysics. In his lecture Heidegger showed himself as an excellent analytical philosopher, whose focus is not on historical-philosophical reception of modern natural science (mainly of Descartes' theory), but on an original picture of the rise of modern science and its links with the origins of modern metaphysics as a metaphysics of subjectivity. For Heidegger understanding modern science means also a deep philosophical insight into Descartes' 'Rules for the Direction of Our Native Intelligence'. And with this we have but to agree.