The author attempts to depict the main issues of Polish democratic thought. As he points out, the crucial task for Polish democrats was introduction of social democracy. They supported the idea even if they had to give up introduction of political democracy. In their view, the 19th century societies were disintegrated and had to be integrated again. They wondered what kind of social relations should bond the members of the new community – the nation. Some of them considered religious bonds as prevailing, others pointed to cultural bonds, whereas still others advocated political ones. They viewed the modern nation as a political, culturally homogeneous, egalitarian community which has its own state. They were afraid that significant groups of the previous Polish Republic citizens may integrate with national communities of the former occupants, which is why they were anxious to rebuild the Polish state together with its modern Polish nation.