Polish discussions on historical memory have their objective international framework and specificity, being part of a general process of a renaissance of memory and debates on the issue of identity that have been going on almost all over the world since the 1980s. They are also predominantly connected with the transformation of the political system in Poland and therefore with the democratization of memory. Such developments could not pass without inducing significant changes in the culture of doing history. The slogan of historical policy that entered public circulation in recent years encompasses a variety of contents. Above all, however, it stands for an assessment of the Third Republic of Poland and is an integral element of controversies over the so-called Fourth Republic.