EDOUARD ANDRE AND HIS GARDEN REALISATIONS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA (Edouard Andre i jego realizacje ogrodowe w Polsce i na Litwie)
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Edouard Andre (1840-1911) is recognised as the author and promoter of the so called 'mixed style' of garden design. Already as a mature person, Andre accepted the commissions from Polish aristocratic families; two tasks in at Samostrzel and Potulice), and four in Lithuania: at Landwarow (Lentvaris) near Vilnius, at Zatrocze (Uzutrakis), Waka Trocka (Traku Voke) and at Polaga (Palanga) on the Baltic coast. At Samostrzel of the Bninski family a park was being created in the 1880s. Its main attraction was the terrace complex situated in front of the palace, decorated with pergolas, gazebos, rows of niches with sculptures and parterres. It seems that Edouard Andre, undoubtedly referring to Italian models (Tivoli), drew here also from his earlier experiences (Monte Carlo). The palace and romantic park at Potulice also existed before, and André, recommended to Aniela Potulicka by Emilia Bninska, transformed it in 1898, created a new space in the mixed style, with a twin lane on the palace's axis and wide terraces on the park side. Andre's parks in Lithuania for Tyszkiewicz brothers were made almost at the same time. At Landwarow the design was initiated in 1896 or 1897. A huge regular garden was created in front of the palace's back façade and landscape park consisting of two parts: 'Riviera' on the lake and 'Switzerland' with unusually diversified lay of the land and four ponds with waterfalls and cascades. At Polaga on the Baltic shore a new palace (1896-1897) was designed by Franz Heinrich Schwechten commissioned by Feliks Tyszkiewicz. At the same time a park was being constructed in seaside dunes overgrown with pines. One of the most interesting elements in the Polaga Park - the Birute Hill - was incorporated as a beauty spot, and its slope was used to make a grotto with a copy of the statue of Our Lady of Lourdes. The idea of modern rosary was André's achievement developed for Jules Gravereaux for his Roseraie de L'Hay. Second important task of André commissioned by Feliks Tyszkiewicz was the landscape design of the so-called 'resort institution'. The institution was designed probably in 1898 or 1899. It is possible that at Jozef Tyszkiewicz's Zatrocze the works on the park began in 1897 or 1898. As a result, a great park was established in the mixed style with a view terrace behind the back façade, parterres at the front and side façades and with a large landscape park decorated with streams, artificial rocks and cascades and a hill crowned with a view arbour. Waka belonged to Jan Tyszkiewicz who commissioned André to transform the existing park surrounding the palace he inherited from his father. The works were carried out at the same time as in other parks in Lithuania and were finished in 1900. Andre transformed the existing park layout into a scenic park. A characteristic feature of Andre's designs is that he maximally emphasised the attributes of selected style: the extreme formalism of geometric gardens and extreme naturalism of scenic parks. When designing his gardens, he had in mind both their aesthetic and purely practical values.
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