The article begins by citing selected examples of state intervention in the area of housing in the Czech Republic, which dates back to the founding of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918, and a brief description is provided of the most important milestones in the evolution of housing policy since 1989. The second part of the article is devoted to empirically testing the effectiveness of selected housing subsidies applied in the Czech Republic at the end of the 1990s. Housing affordability declined after 1989 and required the introduction of new social and housing policy tools. However, the goals of the new housing assistance programmes have often been laid out in very general terms, which, combined with the lack of data on the recipients, has complicated the execution of any kind of effective analysis. For this reason the selection of programmes submitted to the empirical analysis of effectiveness was limited to the following: housing allowance, rent regulation, and the tax deduction of interest from mortgages and housing saving scheme loans. The analyses showed that only the housing allowance met the selected effectiveness criteria.