This study analyses the legal and sociological position of trade unions in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of recent history, current position and potential further development. First part of the paper provides a summary of the history of employee unionisation in the Czech territory. Second part of the paper describes the current legal framework, which is mostly composed of the Czech Civil Code, Labour Code, Act on Collective Bargaining and applicable international treaties. Attention is also paid to relevant decisions of the Czech Constitutional Court. Final part of the study contains reflections of the author related to future development of trade unions in the Czech Republic. The author documents that despite the regulatory framework, the current position of trade unions in Czech society is not strong, and proposes measures to enhance their position.