Relevance of space and territory for the social world and ethnic and national groups is discussed in this article. The analysis of the meaning of the terms 'territory' and 'space' (social and natural) in various social sciences, such as: sociology, psychology, sociobiology (resp. evolutionary psychology), human geography and cultural anthropology is undertaken by the author. The author also analyses the akin categories in these sciences (such as: aggression, violence, border, territorialism, behaviour setting, ecosystem, social and personal distance), which are used to create theories of social space and human behaviour. The fenomenological and anthropological analysis of the category 'territory' constitutes a considerable part of the text. A conception of the theoretical framework of the term 'ontological residuum' in social sciences is also presented in the article (according to - for example - the theory of culture by Antonina Kloskowska). The intention of the author is to concentrate mainly on the ethnic and national sense of the categories under discussion. Therefore the concept of the ethnic constructions on the base of a territory is also presented in the text.