This article provides what did the epidemics meant for common people in 16th and 17th centuries and how the public administration was influenced. The situation during the plague outbreak in 1680 in Ceske Budejovice was analysed. The town was important trade center of South Bohemia with many business contacts. Although the town was not deeply affected, plague outbreak influenced negatively mainly its economy. Therefore local craftsmen and tradesmen tried to keep up their livelihood rather than act to prevent the outbreak and spread of the epidemic. At first the town council attampted to keep a secret the presence of epidemic inside the town. Rules and order were respected only as long as they did not interfere with the regular town life or as the situation in the community did not dramatically deteriorate. In the study there is mention of social inequality of people faced with the plague outbreak: nobility were able to flee before the outbreak, the poor had to remain and often lost their lives.