MUSEUM IN THE LANDSCAPE - KROLLER-MULLER IN OTTERLO, LOUISIANA AND ARKEN NEAR COPENHAGEN, ANDRE MALRAUX IN LE HAVRE AND ORONSKO (Muzea w pejzazu Kroller-Muller w Otterlo, Luisiana i Arken pod Kopenhaga, Andre Malraux w Le Havre i Oronsko)
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The origin of the idea of museums immersed in landscapes and art parks goes back to Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli. The sea and the entrance to the port in Le Havre together with sailing ships create the background of exhibitions shown at the Andre Malraux Museum, situated in an unusual spot - on a headland. Designed by G. Lagneau, 'Musee Malraux' was completed 12 years earlier than 'Centre Pompidou', and was the first museum with a single-space interior.The Kroller-Muller Museum near Otterlo lies in the very centre of De Hoge Veluwe - 55 square kilometres of forests, heaths and dunes. Opened to the public in 1938, and designed by H. van de Velde for Helene Kroller-Muller, the museum is a three-track configuration with a central patio and top lights. In 1953 it was expanded after the addition of a new wing with a conference hall and a sculpture gallery. In 1965, a consecutive extension created glass corridors with a view of the Sculpture Garden, which comprises an extremely important element of the museum. The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Humlebaek is known as the 'concealed' museum. Designed by Jurgen Bo and Vilhelm Wohlert it is the effect of several decades of expansion, from the small villa 'Louisiana' to a pavilion with a lowered section, which made it possible to, i. a., retain a view of the sea. In the course of the construction work the height of the showrooms was increased while preserving the idea of the original architecture and material. The inimitable character of the Louisiana has been bestowed by Nature and its symbiosis with architecture, as well as the programme and dynamics. The Arken Museum of Modern Art near Copenhagen, built in 1996 by S. R. Lind, is also on the Sund but differs greatly from the Louisiana. The enclosed outer plan, formalistic in its deconstructivistic details, cuts off the exposition, almost entirely derived of natural light, from the surrounding landscape, while the inside exposition is limited to elements accentuating the entrance. Maeght Foundation Modern Art Museum in Saint Paul de Vence, built in 1964 according to a project by J. L. Sert, is an example of an architecturally integral solution of the inner and outer exposition on a relatively narrow and sloping lot. The Centre of Polish Sculpture in Oronsko - an example of a museum and, simultaneously, an active culture centre, open-air exhibitions and workshops - has been created around a postmanorial complex designed by J. Brandt and supplemented with a Museum of Contemporary Art . The uniqueness and great variety of the collections, the compelling attraction of the great expositions, and the specificity of the location are the reasons why museums situated within a landscape, frequently distant from towns (a feature which theoretically is a barrier for the visitors), act as a magnet drawing both locals and tourists.
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