Vznik a vývoj bucharského de facto státu
The origin and development of the Bukhara de facto State
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In the years 1920-1924, the Bukharan People’s Republic was considered by the Russian Bolshevist leadership as a transitional state in a stage between the fall of the emirate and incorporation into Soviet Russia (later, the Soviet Union). However, if we look at the developments in Bukhara (and later, also in Khorezm) from a Bukharan domestic political perspective, we see that this was also a matter of fulfilling one of the goals of the Jadid movement: founding a modern republic. This state effectuated its own domestic and foreign policies and was even recognized de facto (although only provisionally) by Russia (RSFSR), Afghanistan, and other states to a certain extent. The Bukharan Republic thus fulfilled many of the criteria for de facto states (although the concept was constructed later). The text compares the different perceptions of this state from the perspective of its domestic elite and the patron state of Bolshevist Russia, and it shows the main reasons for the demise of this configuration. It argues that, with regard for the domestic situation (the Soviet decision about national delimitation), the Jadid ideal of the modern state was transformed into the later Uzbek SSR, and thus became the antecedent of today’s Uzbekistan. The process of national delimitation took place at the level of Central Asian territorial commissions, in which Bukharans led by Fayzulla Khodzhayev had significant influence. It was actually the personal change of Khodzhayev’s opinion that serves as a further argument to explain the Bukharan Republic’s transformation into the Uzbek SSR, which took over a critical part of today’s Central Asia, including the most important political, economic and social centers of the time.
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