Zagrozenia podmiotowosci czlowieka
RISKS OF A MAN'S SUBJECTIVITY
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Subjectivity is one of the most fashionable terms in contemporary humanities and at the same time it is very indefinite. It is worth to mention that subjectivity, as many other terms - was already defined in ancient Greece by the classics of philosophy and in later ages of philosophy and up until modern times the references have been made to the classical notion. The meaning of the term is presented at the beginning of the undertaken discussion. Next some modern and contemporary tendencies, which not only violate but simply shatter subjectivity and identity of a man, are considered. Out of modern concepts those of Hegel's and Marx's and from the contemporary - Hugo T. Engelhard's and Peter Singer's are discussed. Classical philosophical thought presents metaphysical, while modern and contemporary thought present functional concept of subjectivity. In the first approach subjectivity is given to a man because of his existence and explains who a man is. A man always-regardless of possessed skills and functions-retains his identity and is what he is and therefore he is entitled to the indisputable canon of rights. From the beginning to the end he is Great Subject who is entitled to dignity and to respect and love from us. In the functional concept subjectivity is presented in categories of maturity, autonomy, selfconsciousness, ability to run one's life independently and possibility to transform surrounding reality. Therefore a man in prenatal period, a newborn baby as well as the old, the sick and the disabled and the one in the face of death are denied subjectivity. The quality of life of these people are lower than the quality of life of a healthy animal. The status of subjectivity is given only to people who are fit, independent and who actively participate in social life. Elimination of the weakest, that is abortion and euthanasia, is a necessary requirement in order to maintain high quality for ‘better' and ‘stronger' ones. It is clear that in functional presentation of subjectivity there is real danger of treating a man like an object. Omitting classical achievement-putting it mildly-is simplification and narrowing the perspective of presenting problems, and in result it is dangerous for a man.
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