The author has outlined a number of selected, contemporary problems referring to the latest state of dialectological studies in Poland. The studies mentioned above undergo natural numerous modifications resulting from, for instance, a different character of the language of the contemporary Polish rural area and also from different conditions of its functioning and development. Thus, the subject, the objective and the methods of the studies have been changing nowadays. The greater emphasis is put on the necessity to understand better the principles of linguistic communication. These rules are presented against the cultural background within a particular village, along the line village-village and village-city, on various levels, taking into account temporal (chronological layers) and dimensional (geolinguistic) setups.