TRAINING OF TECTONIC SKILLS IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES
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Tectonic expression of forms maintains the importance developed in architecture for a long time, but changing conditions force it to become more complex and integrate more factors. Tectonics creates preconditions for architecture as a sincretic art. So the tectonic nature of architecture becomes of great interest for the creative process. It becomes meaningful to introduce multiple and diverse problems of tectonics into architectural education. The creative work of a contemporary architect is stimulated by generation of distinctive architectural forms which are based on the nature of materials, logical adoption of structures and development of artistic appearance. Skills in modelling a tectonic form play an important role in the process of creation a sound architectural form. Therefore, it is worth to improve the methods of teaching and develop tectonic skills in a more effective way.In the process of education understanding of the interrelation of the main tectonic elements - material, structure and form (artistic appearance) - is developed. It is important to develop tectonic skills during the entire educational process. At separate educational stages different problems of architectural tectonics should be analysed, while interrelation of the main tectonic elements is to be disclosed constantly. Tectonic skills are to be developed simultaneously integrating all the relating disciplines. The educational programs of some schools feel lack of complexity in developing tectonic skills and demonstrate insufficient interdisciplinary connection and the continuity of knowledge. The necessity of a new model of complex studies is evident. To secure a gradual process of tectonic studies, a complex three-levelled model of acquiring tectonic skills is presented. Each level of the model is characterized by progressive acquaintance with the tectonic form. The first level examines tectonic characteristics in non-architectural objects and is an experimental stage; the second level is cognition of architectural tectonic systems and tectonic features of an architectural context; the third level is interpretation based on the tectonic theme: with the help of artistic appearance, an architectural object is tectonically embodied and made meaningful. The stage of interpretation of a tectonic system is the highest level of training compositional skills which integrates the main study disciplines and intensifies students' artistic intuition. At each level of the model one of the three main elements of tectonics is emphasized: at the first level - material, at the second level - structure and at the third level - form.
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