The short observation of the foundation and development of the chairs of archaeology of Lviv University, beginning from its foundation in 1905, is given and the process of reforming of archaeological education in the University is demonstrated. The author set forth the role of the Chairs of Archaeology at the Faculty of Philosophy in organizing archaeological research. The first head of the Chair was the famous researcher K. Hadaczek. In 1916 the Chair of Classical Archaeology was headed by E. Bulanda. He worked here till 1939. In 1921 the Chair of Prehistory was founded. The famous archaeologist and politician L. Kozlowski was its head till 1939. Such famous scientists as K. Majewski, K. Michalowski, T. Sulimirski, M. Smiszko, I. Starczuk, K. Zurowski worked in these two Chairs during the period between two World Wars. In 1940-1941 the Chairs were headed by J. Pasternak and K. Majewski respectively. After World War II the Chairs were joined into the Chair of Archeology and History of Ancient World, headed by I. Wejckiwskyj. In 1949 it was renamed as the Chair of History of Ancient World and Medievalism. The Chair began to specialize in archeology again in 1994 and its name was changed again into the Chair of Archaeology, Antiquity and Medievalism. In 2004 it separated into two structures. Now it functions as the Chair of Archaeology and History of Ancient World. Two professors, six PhD, two assistants and one technician are working there.