If Poland is to successfully face the challenges of globalization she should set out to build the society and the economy based on knowledge. The yardstick that measures advances in this field is constituted by the summary innovativeness index. Poland, however, among economies of UE occupies distant 23rd place. Poland's Development Strategy and related to it Operational Programs for 2007 -2013 stress the importance of the knowledge triangle (R&D, education, innovation). Appropriations directed towards R&D and human capital are to grow significantly, alas the effects in innovativeness are not expected to be impressive. Weaknesses in the supply of technology development supporting factors, meager demand on the part of small firms for innovation, attended by inefficient institutional infrastructure are the main causes of this situation. It seems indispensable to initiate work on long term development strategy that would focus on the national innovativeness system and on the activation of country's capital groups.