The objective of the paper is to analyze the effects of the presence of collective orientation in the organizations. Collectivism means the conviction that the social group welfare is more important than the individual welfare. Collectivism in an organization manifests itself in the orientation towards group targets, even in conflict with the interests of individuals. So, the problem of the efficiency of two orientations, collectivism and individualism, deserves discussion. The social psychology points towards negative effects of the group work, such as the group decision-making and group-thinking syndrome, as well as the problem of social idleness. Similarly, the cultural approach concentrates on such negative effects of collectivism as nepotism, favouritism and clique solidarity. On the other hand, the collective orientation strengthens the solidarity and participation of worker groups, and this is to be considered an advantageous effect of collectivism. Research conducted in five countries presents a very diversified cultural spectrum. According to the results of this comparative research, the Polish organizational culture shows a relatively high degree of collectivism. In the organizational practice, combinations of individual and collective approach are possible. According to the needs of the given organization, either the spirit of individual competition or that of shared responsibility can be promoted. To this end, however, appropriate steps must be taken in the areas of human resources management , strategy, structure, and organizational culture.