SCHOOLING IN THE 19th CENTURY EUROPE AND THE BEGINNINGS OF COMPARATIVE EDUCATION IN ENGLAND (Szkolnictwo w XIX-wiecznej Europie i poczatki pedagogiki porównawczej w Anglii)
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The aim of article is the explanation of multilateral factors which influenced the development of modern educational structures in Western Europe, particularly in Prussia (later Germany), France and England. Special interest is bound to the development of new elementary schools in Prussia, France and England. Continental experience in this field have influenced England in building of public elementary schooling originated in 1870 (Forster Act). Secondary schooling in Europe was represented by three main models: German classical Gymnasium, French lycee and English 'grammar' and 'public' school. In 19th century Europe and also in the United States the most popular model of an university was the German university, based on Humboldt's concept first realized in Berlin University, founded in 1810. French faculties, created by Napoleon instead of former universities, didn't play such important role in higher education and the advancement of sciences as German universities did. The rapid development of English universities took place in the second half of 19th century. In 1828 and 1832 London and Durham universities were opened. Since 1851 thanks to private benevolence few new universities came into existence. In that time two old English universities (Oxford and Cambridge) were to be modernized and open for students of different religion, not Anglican only, In whole education and science policy of English government, very important role was played by a new branch of pedagogical science, which in 20th century was described as comparative education. It was originated by Her Majesty's Inspector Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) and Michael Sadler (1841-1943) - since 1894 director of the Office of Special Enquiries and Reports in the Education Department.
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