Počátky renesanční typografie v Čechách a na Moravě
THE BEGINNINGS OF RENAISSANCE TYPOGRAPHY IN BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA
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In spite of obvious apologia of modern Czech researchers, our typography of Jagellon's period has only an occasional character. The main reasons are a weak potential of writers' and translators' skills, absence of separately profiled publishing branch and the editorial strategy determined by the foreign import. The period in which our domestic early printed books disengaged from a late Gothic features was longer than in typographic empires like Germany, France or Italy. That was due to the fact that the majority of Czech printers and cutters in the first decade of the 16th century were stimulated by the older illustrational repertoire. Mikulas Konac (1514) and Pavel Olivetsky (1520) were the first who got rid of a late Gothic opinion. The next generation can already be considered to belong to the early Renaissance. The intensity, however, with which this generation adopted the new style varied because of economic aspects: it was adopted to a lesser degree by poorer Mikulas Klaudyan (1518) and Oldrich Velensky (1519); on the contrary richer Pavel Severin (1520) and Jiri Styrsa (1521) adhered to it more vigorously. The twenties of the 16th century are analogically a period when the Renaissance decorative elements are being used in the domestic book binding. In this time we can also see somewhat belated reception of a humanistic written minuscule. The early Renaissance era of typography in our countries took about twenty years longer than in Germany, Austria and Poland. The upper time limit lies between the thirties and half of the forties of the 16th century when the Prague's printer Jan Had started to use the Venetian type of antiqua (Roman type) instead of usual Schwabacher type when printing the books in Latin. Bartolomej Netolicky, who lived in Prague, and Jan Günther were the first in this time, too, who accepted the Blackletter as a distinctive type face of the Czech texts. With these systematic changes the graphic reform of our book-printing has been accomplished until the beginning of the 19th century.
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