The research is aimed at the study of the occupational structure of the Ukrainian society, in particular of the distribution of the population of Ukraine by occupational groups (which were derived according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO-88). The statistical data demonstrate that a significant dynamics of occupational differentiation of Ukrainian population took place during the last twelve years, namely a shift from blue collar occupations in the industrial sector to the sphere of trade and services.The comparative data of the ESS indicate a principal similarity of occupational differentiation of the post-socialist societies in contrast to the Western countries (particularly the volume of the white collar positions in the West is considerably higher, while for the blue collar is correspondingly lower). The received data point out the importance of the determinants of gender and age for the analysis of the occupational structure of post-soviet societies. The authoress reveals the partterns of both the horizontal and the vertical gender segregation. The peculiarity of the occupational position of different age groups lies in the so-called 'edge effect': the youngest (below 20 years old) and the oldest (above 60) groups have a specific occupational structure against the middle groups.