The article presents some results of his field research carried between 1997 and 2001 in Vilnius region. It focuses on a topic not sufficiently studied in song-oriented ethnomusicology, namely instrumental practice - the kinds of instruments, social image and activities of instrumentalists. Special attention is paid to dance tradition. The author could find only 19 instrumentalists of the older generation who play dulcimer, fiddle or accordion. The traditional set of instruments includes the dulcimer, fiddle and one-sided small drum (tambourine). Historical sources confirm the existence of the musical bow and numerous aerophones connected with shepherding, such as flutes and horns. Until the 19th century the region was visited by players on hurdy-gurdies and bagpipes. The evolution of the accordion in the 20th century can be well illustrated in the region. The author discusses the process of cultural changes, e.g. the influence of broadcasting and folk ensembles, comparing historical data with contemporary interviews. His typology of local dances which comprises ritual, social, and play dances refers to the older ones of the 1930s. Dances and dance behaviour are described in a detailed way also by the performers themselves. The text presents local knowledge also on value system, e.g. standards of excellence in musical and dance performance, and generally it preserves the cultural heritage of the Polish national minority in Lithuania.