Linguistic Integration Processes (Based on the Material of Malopolski Dialect in the Village Chrusty)
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The subject of the article is integration processes of the dialect from a village close to Kielce and standard Polish. The article focuses on the lexical part which has been dropped by the inhabitants during the last part of the century. Mechanisms of their standard vocabulary acquisition are described in another work. Dropping dialectic vocabulary is not done mechanically, but it is a complex process influenced by extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic factors. The simplest relation occurs when a word disappears together with the designation, e.g. 'es' (an S letter shaped tool for chopping potatoes), 'zapaska' (a woolen colorful cloak to put around the shoulders, a regional piece of clothing). Some words disappear due to reinterpretation of the reality, which is why 'odwieczerz' (the time between 4 and 5 p.m), 'podoknie' (the part of the wall below a window) cease to exist, although the designations objectively still exist. Getting rid of some dialectic words is a long-term process. It is accompanied by contrary tendencies of various kinds, e.g. modification of the word form (phonetic, inflectional, morphological), a change in meaning, a change of emotional contents, metaphor formation, phrasal usage. One of the clearly seen tendencies is a substitution: a standard Polish word replaces a dialectic one, e.g. 'mdly' (sickly) instead of 'drujki'.
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