The Jurisdiction of Polish Underground State in Vilnius Region During World War II
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The Polish underground jurisdiction in Vilnius Region during World War II consisted of two structures -'Wojskowe Sady Specjalne' (WSS), connected with the underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa) and 'Sad Karny Specjalny' (SKS), connected with the underground civil administration. They were established in 1942 and 1943. The Polish underground jurisdiction played very important role - it was created to establish Polish justice on territories occupied by the Nazis. Vilnius Region had complicated ethnical and political structure at this time. These problems were used by Soviet and Nazi occupants to suppress Polish underground. There were many individuals who collaborated with the occupant's authorities. The documents concerning individual cases have not been preserved, so it is difficult to find out how many criminal trials have taken place. According to information form press and other sources there were about 100 cases in WSS, but the number of cases in SKS is unknown. During the Soviet occupation only one death sentence was enforced. During the Nazi occupation 1942-44 the number of enforced death sentences increased to 11. Those who were sentenced were accused of collaboration with Gestapo or NKWD. One should also mention that 5 death sentences could not be enforced, because the sentenced traitors escaped. Some of the traitors took part in the Ponary massacre, where 100 thousand of civilians were executed. There are some controversies in two cases, because the death sentences were connected with political views of the accused persons. Generally, the sentences were legal and correct.
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