The author tackles the problem of the new quality of pedagogy in postmodern world. The knowledge of upbringing and education as a collection of historically, socially and politically changing research approaches, that has been multi-paradigmatic for many years, is created partly in a cumulative way, partly as a dialogue, both evolutionarily and revolutionarily. Scientists later reconstructing pedagogical theories or notions create them anew, to a certain extent, by injecting them with the modern point of view, which can include some part of past cognitive perspective, at the same time redefining it by new interpretation. In confrontation with various methodologies, be they complementary, contradictory or speaking with one another, historical continuity involves at the same time certain historical incontinuity. Individual schools, doctrines, movements or trends in pedagogy are described and interpreted by researchers in such different ways that their value is influenced not only by the clear rule of presentation, but also by unavoidable arbitrariness of selection and organisation of data, selection of theories, their description and assessment. Thus, the classification of trends in pedagogical thought stems from the need to seize the diversity of thought and methods of its justification and to form a structure (hierarchical - vertical or non-hierarchical - horizontal), so they can become some sort of mental communication with the world, clarify the situation of axionormative diversity in pedagogy, emphasize the sense of scientific achievements, evoke astonishment or preserve the sense of right choices.