Objectives. The main objective of this study was to explore the views and beliefs of school-aged children on smoking and drinking of alcohol, using a qualitative approach and data of the cross-sectional HBSC (Health behaviour in school-aged children) 2013/2014 study. The aim was also to compare the variability of identified views and beliefs in terms of gender and age. Sample and settings. The sample comprised 75 participants from four Slovak elementary schools. The characteristics of the present sample were similar to those of the target population of HBSC study (11-, 13- and 15-years-old children). The research design was based on a qualitative approach using elicitation in a form of prepared worksheets and initial open questions. The data were collected using worksheets and observer’s records. Research questions. What are the views and beliefs of school-aged children about the HBSC findings regarding smoking and drinking and what are their recommendations regarding these issues. Data analysis. A qualitative controlled content analysis was carried out. Results. Participants have sufficient information particularly about the various negative impacts of smoking and alcohol use on health and life in general. However, they do not realize their own potential in addressing health risks. The results indicated some specifics in terms of the gender and age. Study limitation. The quantity and quality of the material gained from participants might be affected by their lack of experience with discussion methods and activities aimed at the development of active engagement. Focus groups size.