SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC PECULIARITIES OF THE OBJECTIVELY EXISTING PROCESSES OF INNOVATIONS GENERATION IN THE ECONOMIES WITH FULL AND TRUNCATED INNOVATION CYCLE (Nauchno-tekhnicheskiye i ekonomicheskiye osobennosti obiyektivno suschestvuyusc
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The innovation life cycle has traditionally been supposed to consist of the five linear phases (from the first phase - innovation generation, to the fifth phase - innovation product manufacturing), but a more detailed consideration for the existing innovation processes shows that they cannot be always described by the simple linear structure. As shown by the practice, accumulation of the basic knowledge leads to several applied efforts to create radically distinctive innovations. This results in a variety of fan-shaped structures. Seven possible basic structures are analyzed, to show that they allow for an adequate description of any objectively existing process of innovation in the economies of the full innovation cycle, because any history of producing the innovation either represents one of the basic structures or can be described by their combination. The concepts of the absolutely innovational country (economy) and relatively innovational country (economy) are introduced, to denote, respectively, the country's capability to implement the above innovation structure within all the economic activities, and the economies pursuing 'mixed' option of the innovation development (or 'mixed' development through innovation and technology transfer). The role and contribution of national governments, international non-profit organizations and private (commercial) sources in financing innovations produced by means of various structures is discussed.
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