INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION COMPONENT OF THE HIGHER SCHOOLS IN THE 'OBSEC' COUNTRIES IN THE EUROPEAN RESEARCH AND EDUCATION AREAS. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Languages of publication
The Organization for Black Sea Economic Cooperation (OBSEC) incorporates 12 countries varying by size, membership in international organizations (only Bulgaria, Greece and Romania are EU members and only Greece and Turkey are OECD members), economic development (GDP per capita varying from 23,400 USD in Greece to 2,100 USD in Moldova), economic differentiation of the population (ratio of income received by 20% of the poorest and 20% of richest population strata varying from 9.3 in Turkey to 4.1 in Ukraine), research and innovation potential (share of R&D expenditures in GDP from 1.2% in Russia and Ukraine to 0.3% in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia), number of researchers per 1,000,000 of population (from 3,300 in Russia to 1,000 in Romania), funding of education (from 6% of GDP in Ukraine to 4.3% in Greece and Moldova, and 2.5% in Azerbaijan). The situation in the OBSEC with respect to R&D in higher school cannot be referred as good, which affects its European integration according to the Bologna criteria. Average share of R&D expenditures in the total expenditures on higher school was 29% (2004) in the OBSEC, against 31% in 19 members of the OECD. As regards Ukraine, rich statistical data over 1991-2006 show the following trends in the higher school: declining share of funding in parallel with increasing number of organizations; decreasing number of R&D personnel; decreasing share of completed R&D; decreasing number of graduates inclined to go to R&D sector. Other factors affecting Ukraine's integration in European research and education areas concern technical facilities in the higher school, which are worse than in the 'Academy', 'branch' and 'factory' sectors, and uncontrolled opening of many HEEs. Conclusion is made that R&D in the Ukrainian higher school needs to be encouraged through developing a national program 'Science in Universities' till 2012.
Publication order reference
CEJSH db identifier