CHILD AND EARLY ADOLESCENT PERSONALITY: ITS STRUCTURE, AGE TRENDS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES
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The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003), a recently developed age- and culture-decentralized assessment tool based on the parental free descriptions, was administered to 1043 mothers of children and adolescents aged from 2 to 14 years. The principal component analysis of 15 mid-level personality traits resulted in five robust domains interpreted as conscientiousness, extraversion, disagreeableness, openness/intellect and neuroticism. The trait-scales and the five components were internally reliable across the five age-groups, toddlerhood, early, middle and late childhood, and the early adolescence. The small age and the gender effects on the component- and trait-scores suggested an age decline in disagreeableness, mostly due to decreases in antagonism and strong will, while an inconsistent age effect was obtained with respect to openness/intellect. The girls were rated slightly higher in the conscientiousness than were boys, who were, in turn, attributed somewhat the higher levels of neuroticism in comparison to the girls. At the trait level, compliance increased with the age and the inconsistent age differences were revealed for the activity. The girls were ascribed some more achievement orientation, compliance and organization in comparison to the boys who were assessed as more antagonistic, active, distractible and fearful/insecure. .
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