CERTIFICATION: BACKGROUND, IMPORTANCE AND BUILDING UP THE LEGAL BASIS
Languages of publication
Marking of products has a long history, and historiography had to outline issues to be dealt with in this field of studies. They covered the origin of measures and weights, standards and certificates, control, metrology and certification. Evolution of measures and weights is shown in detail, from ancient times (Assyria, Babylon, Greece) when they first appeared, to the medieval age, when the expansion of handcrafts enhanced the importance of stamping goods and certifying services, and to the capitalist era. The latter changed national markets due to the mass-scaled manufacturing, entailing boost of trade and competition. It was competition that pushed producers to seek for loyal consumers, which required quality enhancement, to be certified in a specific way. Therefore, the role of brand increased in the two aspects: as a mean to individualize a commodity, and as a promotion instrument. Legal protection of brands has existed since long now. Its history began with enforcement of legal sanctions for forging a brand, followed by enforcement of legal acts on protection of brands, and protection of brands at international level, implemented in the Paris Convention on Property Protection (1983) and the Madrid Agreement (1891), which was subject to a series of later revisions. Also, legal protection of brands has its history in Russia and Ukraine. As foreign trade was expanding, the need was felt in external expertise of products, independent of a producer and a consumer, to check the products' conformity with quality requirements. In this way, certification appeared, becoming an important instrument for quality management.
Publication order reference
CEJSH db identifier