UNIVERSALISTIC PRETENSIONS IN ETHICS. FORMALISM AND SOME OF THE ATTEMPTS AT ESTABLISHING A VALUE ETHICS
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The paper sheds light on the way of the motif of universalism has been articulated in some philosophical conceptions. While within the Kantian tradition universalism is related to the formalism, the material value ethics aims at establishing contextual ('material') a priori, which opens up already a hierarchic order on emotional level. In the last three decades of the 20th century, however, we witnessed an attempt of a new formal and universalistic conception of the grounds of ethics, especially in the discursive ethics of J. Habermas. The contextual questions concerning the meanings of values were also reformulated in various conceptions of the ecological ethics. In the latter the nature, and living 'non-human' creatures were included into the sphere of the ethically and morally relevant. The conception of discursive ethics is considered as a reasonably grounded one. In the controversy between biocentrism and anthropocentrism it plays the role of 'methodological' and 'purified' anthropocentrism.
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