EUGENICS IN 20s OF XX CENTURY IN UKRAINE (Yevhenika v 20-kh rokakh v Ukrayini)
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The history of eugenics, the origin and definition of this term is given, with reference to contributions by European scientists and theories. The history of eugenics in pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary Russia is shown, with the conclusion about the significant role of eugenics in opening institutes in genetic field within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. As can be seen from analysis of scientific and other sources, eugenic ideas were subject of discussions and concern in Ukraine in 20s, and eugenics in Ukraine was introduced in that time mainly in form of social hygiene and studies of hereditary decease, in view of social calamities afflicting Ukraine in times of I world war, the revolution and the civil war: mass-scale starvation, dying out, gender imbalance, nervous and psychic dysfunctions, the extremely high mortality rate and the declining birth rate, spread of epidemic and social decease, along with the total ruining of the system for local medical aid existing in pre-revolutionary period. Dissemination of eugenic ideas in Ukraine of that period allowed for creating the network of research centers in the field, medical and genetic advisory stations, tuberculosis and psychiatric clinics etc., and, eventually, for establishing a new system for public health care. Genetic studies were subject of deep scientists' concern. Detailed account is given about research effort and organizational undertakings by Ukrainian scientists of that period, mainly psychiatrists and neuropathologists.
- Oresta V. Romanets, G. M. Dobrov Center for Science & Technology Potential and Science History Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Tsentr doslidzhen' naukovo-tekhnichnogo potentsialu ta istorii nauky imeni G.M. Dobrova NAN Ukrainy); 60, bulvar Tarasa Shevchenka, 01032, Kyiv-32, Ukraine
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