To this day, the assessment of Emil Filla's last creative phase remains problematic. Within this period, the cycle on the theme of Slovak bandit songs, made between 1948 and 1951, constitutes a special chapter. The article treats period interpretations of these works, outlining the intellectual context out of which they grew. It looks in detail at Filla's attitude to questions of 'nationality' and the 'Czech character' of art, folk art and the work of Mikolás Ales. These issues appeared in various phases of Filla's life and were rooted in the time of the Group of Fine Artists (Skupina výtvarných umelcu). A key point in the article is the explanation of the 'crossing' of Asian and folk art forms, of cubism and the influence of Ales' work in the cycle of bandit songs. In light of Filla's own reflections, these paintings are interpreted as depictions of a myth, which the painter struggled to formulate. This is in line with their artistic structure and conception of space, which resonates with the interwar analysis of mythic space proposed by Ernst Cassirer. At the end of the study, Filla's work is considered from the perspective of Roland Barthes' analysis of mythical language.