The article deals with the essence, character, sources and interpretation of the Social Teaching of the Church, which is an integral part of the Christian conception of life and a part of the Church's evangelizing mission. It presents the attitude of the Church to political and economic issues, a moral evaluation of institutional frameworks, the historical conditionality of doctrine, as well as the timelessness of propagated values that spring from the Christian perspective of a human being. The article explores forms of interpretation and ideologization of this doctrine in the context of Christian social thought. Using the example of the Czech situation, the article illustrates the relation of the Church's social doctrine to political ideologies and to the political engagement of Christians. Particular cases of political parties and ideological streams are introduced, and the ways they use and interpret the social doctrine of the Church.