DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION LOCALIZATION OF THE HUNGARIAN ETHNIC GROUP IN SLOVAKIA (Demografia i rozmieszczenie ludnosci wegierskiej w Slowacji 1918-1950)
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The publication presents an outline of changes in the numerical force and localization of Hungarian population in Slovakia in the period between the separation of Slovaks from Hungary in 1918 to 1950. This is a crucial problem constituting a basis for considering the complex Hungarian question in Slovakia in that time. The starting point of the reflections is clear, and the basic argument for establishing the final date was the first census after World War II in Czechoslovakia, carried out after the displacements, expulsions and re-Slovakization of the Hungarian population after the whole of the power in the country had been taken over communists. After World War I, several hundred of Hungarians found themselves on the Slovakian side of the border and became a minority, Being, however, still aware of their belonging to the Hungarian nation, a few times larger in number than Slovaks. Before World War I, those people inhabited the very centre of the Hungarian Kingdom and constituted an integral part of the reigning nation. Due to the shortage of space, the reflections concentrate on showing changes in number and localization of the Hungarian population in Slovakia in the period between the Wars, during World War II and in the first years after its end. For the reason mentioned above, an inner demographic analysis of the Hungarian population in Slovakia was omitted (age, gender, etc.) The much criticized census of 1910 showed that the territory which 8 years later became Slovakia was inhabited by 884,210 Hungarians (30,3%). In an independent Slovakia, during the census of 1921, the Hungarian nationality was declared by 650,597 (21,7%) people, and that number, varying periodically, was basically the same, or even higher in the last half-century. However, with a general increase in the population of Slovakia, this means that the percentage of Hungarians has dropped below 10% of the whole population of the country. The publication cites an opinion formed by Janos Makkai, a Hungarian ethnographer and sociologist. According to him, Hungarian people living in Slovakia and other neighbouring countries must have been more experienced in the fight for their rights, were more resistant, specialized, and more versatile in struggling against difficulties of everyday life.
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