Subjective well-being in a Polish national sample: the roles of demographic factors, Type A, and goals
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This article seeks to further our understanding of relationships between individual characteristics (age, education, two components of Type A – anger and achievement) and subjective well-being (SWB). Goals (affiliation and agency goals) were studied both as predictors of SWB and as moderators of relations between individual characteristics and SWB. The SWB components were: somatic symptoms, life satisfaction, frequency of positive and negative mood. The data from Polish General Social Survey collected on the representative national sample (N = 1221) showed that education was positively related to SWB. Age was a negative predictor of all SWB indices (with the exception of negative mood). Two components of Type A were differently related to SWB: anger was a negative predictor of SWB, whereas achievement was positively related to SWB. Affiliation but not agency goals predicted high level of SWB. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that goals moderated relations between individual characteristics and SWB. Post Scriptum -'Personality' (top-bottom) approach to SWB has been offered as an alternative to studies of the impact of situational factors and life events on SWB (bottom-up models of SWB). However, the 'bottom' effects on SWB were found to be small and restricted to only 'fresh' events (cf., Suh, Diener, & Fujita, 1996).
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