CULTURE AS A VALUE AND AS THE SYSTEM OF VALUES
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Due to the crisis of natural and mathematical science as well as positivistic philosophy the second half of the nineteenth century saw an increasing search for differences between natural and humanistic cognition. The problems such as what is important, what cultural substances and values shape individual and social consciousness, as well as what is the world of culture as a objective reality also require philosophical explanation. In the face of contemporary culture philosophy basically aims at answering the questions: can cultural transformations be measured by ethical criteria, what can we say about a human being as a subject of culture - creative activities, are there any tests, stating what is culture value and the direction in which cultural transformations should proceed. There exist many variations of culture philosophy just as there are many trends of philosophy itself and many culture labels of varied meaning. The article presents an outlook on culture rising from the tradition of humanistic philosophy by F. Znaniecki and from the spirit of phenomenology. Both these trends understand philosophy as a knowledge of universally significant values.
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