The object of the paper was presentation of the premises and trends of changes in the communal debt in Poland as assessed against the background of the relative values generated by the selfgovernments in the European Union countries. Basic quantities and indicators illustrating the situation of the Polish and the EU selfgovernments were presented. The comparison permits to ascertain that the condition, structure and size of the communal debt of the Polish selfgovernment units are kept on a good level and practically do not exert any adverse influence on the magnitude of the state's public debt. The mean level of the communal debt's share in the whole value of the public debt amounts in the European Union to 8.6% and in Poland to 4.1%. Over the last few years, however, many EU countries were introducing restrictive regulations, together with sanctions for tolerating budgetary deficits in operational activities, which is expected to lead to reduction in the debt value in those countries. Whereas in Poland opposite trends are showing up.