The paper discusses the issues connected with the internal and foreign policy of the Russian Federation and the posts of president and prime minister after the 2008 election. The authoress presented the characteristic factors that influence functioning in the new system of authority and examined which determinants played the most important role in creation of the position of Russia in the world. The aim of the article is to analyze the relations between the two centers of power which emerged after the last presidential election, including the influence of this specific team on the relations between the ruling elites in Russia. Making reference to the objectives of internal and foreign policy developed during the two terms of Vladimir Putin's presidency, the article tries to establish whether there is a possibility that they will be maintained as well as answer the question who is actually in power in Russia, and whether the Medvedev-Putin team will be able to function in the long run. The Medvedev-Putin team, which is presently in power, is not a solution characteristic of traditional Russia and will be put to the test of time. The arguments presented in the article strengthen the belief that Putin's position is still very strong and there is no doubt that authority still belongs to him. The position of President Medvedev is uncertain and his policy only slightly differs from Putin's model. Everything indicates that he will stay in the background - the shadow of the real leader of the nation.